Write a detailed mechanism for the oxidation of benzoin to benzil by chromic acid

He was educated at Repton school and Wadham College, Oxford, where he graduated in In he married Mabel, daughter of R. Hall-Dare of Newtownbarry, Co. Wexford, and she became his companion in all his travels.

Write a detailed mechanism for the oxidation of benzoin to benzil by chromic acid

More specifically, it relates to a photo- or thermo-polymerizable composition that can be used as a recording layer of a "Computer-to-Plate" planographic printing plate precursor with high sensitivity. In "Computer-to-Plate" system, images are recorded on a planographic printing plate by image-wise irradiating with lasers based on digital signals from computers or the like.


Description of the Related Art Solid lasers, semiconductor lasers and gas lasers that emit UV light, visible light, and infrared light in a wavelength range of to nm are widely available and they are high in power and small in size. These lasers are useful as a recording light source when direct plate making is performed from digital data of a computer or the like.

There are various studies on image recording materials that can respond to these various laser lights; as typical image recording materials, acid catalyst crosslinking negative image recording materials for instance, JP-A No.

Furthermore, examples of recording materials sensitive to UV light or visible light in a range of to nm also include a lot of radical polymerizable negative image recording materials for instance, USP No. As high sensitive radical polymerizable recording materials particularly suitable for a printing plate, usually, polymerizable compositions that contain an alkali-soluble polymerizable polymer binder and a polymerizable crosslinking agent monomer, oligomer are used.

In such radical polymerizable compositions, while an increase in an amount of the polymer serving as a binder is generally effective in improving storage stability, on the other hand, a tendency toward lower sensitivity is observed.

On the contrary, when a content of the polymerizable crosslinking agent is increased to attain higher sensitivity, storage stability is likely to deteriorate. Accordingly, the present situation is that a balance between storage stability and high sensitivity is attained by controlling a ratio of the binder to the polymerizable crosslinking agent.

On the other hand, as highly sensitive radical polymerizable photo- or heat-sensitive materials suitable for a recording layer of the printing plate, usually, combinations of alkali-soluble polymerizable polymer binders and polymerizable crosslinking agents monomer, oligomer are used.


With the intention of attaining high sensitivity, for instance, JP-A No. When the binder is endowed with the radical polymerizable group, since the binder that is a polymer participates directly in the crosslinking, an augmentation of the crosslinking reaction due to a molecular weight effect is caused, and thereby a little bit higher sensitivity can be assuredly obtained; on the contrary, since the photosensitive materials become thermally unstable, there are concerns in that storage stability may deteriorate owing to the higher gelling efficiency of the crosslinking binder, and deterioration of the developability of non-image areas interposed between image fine lines due to a crosslink structure formed in the polymer may result in less sharpness of the fine lines, that is, lower image quality.

This is a general dilemma when the polymers are used; even with the above technique, the essential reciprocality between the stability and the sensitivity cannot be avoided. This is considered that generally in the case of the polymers, when the polymerizability thereof is improved, storage stability that is observed in non-polymers tends to decrease, as a result, the balance between the sensitivity and storage stability is deteriorated.

Usually, photo-radical polymerizable compositions allow a curing reaction to occur with high sensitivity; however, since polymerization inhibition due to oxygen in the air is likely to occur, it is common to dispose an oxygen- shielding layer on an image formation layer.

However, the disposition of the oxygen-shielding layer causes fogging due to dark polymerization, resulting in deterioration in storage stability.

Furthermore, in a recording layer obtained by forming a film from the photo-polymerizable composition, a curing reaction due to light proceeds sufficiently in the neighborhood of a surface thereof.

CNA - Additive fabrication of proppants - Google Patents

However, in the depths of the recording layer, there is a problem in that since a sufficient curing reaction does not proceed, high press life is difficult to attain. Thus, in photo-polymerizable compositions that utilize a curing reaction due to light exposure, a technique that can sufficiently accomplish both objects of high sensitivity and storage stability has not been obtained at present.

Furthermore, another object of the invention is to provide photo- or thermo-polymerizable compositions preferable as a recording layer of a planographic printing plate precursor that can be recorded with high sensitivity by using infrared laser exposure, and is excellent in press life and storage stability.

The present inventors, after intensive study, have found that polymer binders that have on a side chain a functional group that contains both of a specific polymerizable partial structure polymerizable group and an alkali-soluble group can be cured with high sensitivity, and that when these polymer binders are used in an image recording material, the image recording material can form a high quality image, and is excellent in press life and storage stability, to thereby accomplish the invention.

That is, the polymerizable composition according to the invention includes an alkali-soluble polymerizable polymer that has on a side chain a structure represented by the following general formula Iand, when subjected to either exposure or heating, is polymerized and cured.Organic Chemistry - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.

Write Lewis structures for each of the following compounds using dots for the The steps shown above are not intended to depict the actual mechanism of methane combustion.

write a detailed mechanism for the oxidation of benzoin to benzil by chromic acid

The overall heat of reaction is independent of the way5/5(1). Show a mechanism how the N2(g) is formed in the oxidation reaction of benzoin to benzil with ammonium nitrate and Cu2+ ions.

(Hint: note that in the reaction, nitrate is reduced to nitrite). The reaction in the figure below indicates the oxidation of C4H9OH with chromic acid.

Write the systematic IUPAC name for the product in the space. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. A detailed study of the following rearrangements: Benzil-Benzilic acid.

F. Organomettalic Chemistry-A Unified Approach. dehydrogenation yielding C-C double bond. Nickel tetracarbonyl.

Advanced Organic Chemistry-Reactions Mechanisms and Structure. In an attempt to oxidation, we have tried to prepare clay-impregnated duplicate previous experiments on the oxidation of cy- potassium ferrate either by oxidizing clay-supported clododecanol with KMnO4-coated molecular sieves in Novel Oxidizing Reagent Based on K2FeO4 J.

Org. Chem., Vol. 61, No. 18, benzene,55 they initially obtained. Transition metals in organic synthesis annual survey covering the year ☆.

EPA1 - Polymerizable composition - Google Patents