For ordering information, please click here. The Portuguese occupied Mombasa once more in The same year the King of Pate agreed to garrison Portuguese soldiers and give Portugal a monopoly on ivory. After the people of Pate refused to build the fort and burned down half of Pate, the King sold the Portuguese a ship to return to Goa.
This section of the grade 10 curriculum was developed in While much of the content is still relevant to the new curriculum, the focus is slightly different. However, it provides for great further reading.
In this section you will look at how the expansion of European trade led to the establishment of fortified trading stations and eventually permanent European settlements in the Americas, Africa and India.
Early European voyages of trade and discovery Bartholomeu Dias, the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa. The Ottoman Turks controlled trade routes to the East. The main reason why Europeans began to search for a sea route to the East was to avoid paying expensive customs duties, or taxes.
The rulers of every country between India and Europe charged a tax on the spice shipments as the goods passed through their land. Europeans used spices such as salt, nutmeg and cloves to preserve their meat, as they did not have refrigerators to keep meat fresh. During the fifteenth century the Portuguese began to explore the west coast of Africa.
They established trading stations and began trading in gold and slaves in competition with the inland trans-Saharan trade routes.
Bartholomeu Dias was the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa. He stopped at several places along the east coast of Africa. At the port of Malindi, he found an experienced Arab navigator, Ibn Majid, who joined the expedition and showed him the sea route to India across the Indian Ocean.
They arrived in Calicut in While the Portuguese were looking for a route to India around Africa, the Spanish were looking for a western route. He reached the Caribbean islands off what would later be called North and South America.
He was convinced he had found the East Indies. Columbus claimed San Salvador, Cuba and Hispaniola for the Spanish crown where he established trading stations to finance his voyages.
The attempts by Columbus and da Gama to find new trade routes to the East encouraged exploration in other areas. In he discovered Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. These discoveries resulted in European colonisation during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
A number of companies were formed in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to further expand trade with the East. These were formed by merchant adventurers who travelled to the East after the discovery of the Cape sea route. These companies were given charters to trade by the governments of their countries.
This meant that the rulers of Europe were not directly involved in trade. They did, however, support the companies and welcomed the increased wealth that trade brought to the economy.
A charter is a document giving authority to companies to take over and control other areas. This control included various functions of government such as making laws, issuing currency, negotiating treaties, waging war and administering justice.
These were the most important of these chartered companies: Colonisation Colonisation is the process of acquiring colonies. European powers took over land by force and then settled European people on the land.Zekire, The theme of using the women and monks as the chief protagonists from the ‘indigenous’ or ‘native’ abohagotatna, resulted in a highly skewed story telling of the real experience of colonialism.
East Africa, Arabs, and Europeans East Africa and the British Kenya Africa’s Lakes Region Buganda and the British Boer women, children and men unfit for service were herded together in concentration camps by the British forces during Anglo-Boer War 2 ().
News, books, and history about the royalty of Europe. The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
A distinction is generally made [by whom?] between the "first colonial empire," that existed until , by which time most of it had been lost, and the "second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in Described by some as Africa’s first World War, the conflict in the DRC (formerly known as Zaire) has involved seven nations.
The central African country is bordered by numerous nations with whom it has had conflicts.