Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Types of interests and interest groups Interests and interest groups in all types of political systems can be placed broadly in five categories: Economic interest groups are ubiquitous and the most prominent in all countries.
Preliminary Definitions To give focus to what follows, let me start with some definitions, which will be elaborated and expanded in the discussion that follows: A human need, or, more accurately, the object of a human need is something which a human being must have in order to live a recognizably human life.
An interest, or, more accurately, the object of a human interest, is a thing that is either a direct object of human need or else it is related to a direct object of human need as a reliable means is to an end. Thus, if health is something that one needs, medicine that helps one regain one's health if sick is something in which one has a interest.
I am using the term "interest" in the sense in which we sometimes speak of real interests or healthy interests.
A want, or more accurately, the object of a want, is something which one desires to have, whether or not one needs it or has an interest in it in the preceding sense.
Akin to the notion of want is the notion of preference. To have a preference for something is to prefer to have it, or that it be so, over not having it, or indifference to its being so. Understood in this way, we sometimes want, or have wants for, things in which we have no interest in the above sensebecause we want things that are not related reliably to what we need.
I grant that ordinary English does not always make this distinction. Indeed we often speak of someone having an interest, i. A motive corresponds to a want or a preference that is sufficiently strong that it moves us to action or deliberate inaction.
There can be a motive get acquire or consume things in which we have no genuine or healthy interest in the special sense of interest defined above. This term, coined by A. Maslow, refers to needs for things like food, clothing, shelter, love, respect, and self-respect.
This term, also coined by Maslow, refers to needs characteristic of the "self-actualized" person.
Such a person is no longer dominated by the deficiency needs but instead needs "ongoing actualization of potentials, capacities, and talents, as fulfillment of mission The Basic Idea "No effective substitute for the concept of needs in personal life or in public policy has come forward.
Attempts to found policy choices on preferences alone have forfeited the moral concern that other people's needs awaken, much more powerfully than other people's preferences" David Braybrooke For a start, let us define an object of human need as that which a human being must have to live a recognizably human life.
An object of need is that which, if a human being is deprived of it by the intentional act or omission of other humans, is presumptively apart from certain cases of forfeit an injustice, and that which, if a human being is deprived of it by the accidents of nature or an unavoidable accidental conjunction of human events, is presumptively a tragedy.
As uncontroversial examples of human need, David Braybrooke mentions the human need for water and the need for an environment cooler than degrees F. Needs and Wants We all recognize that people sometimes want things that they do not need.
The word "prefer" is sometimes used here in place of "want"; see Braybrooke Indeed, they sometimes want things that they should not be permitted to have. On the other hand, to establish that something is an object of genuine need for a person seems to be a pretty good reason to permit him or her to have it.
By "pretty good reason" I do not mean it is decisive in all cases, to be sure. By contrast with "wants," "needs" suggest a degree of urgency. When needs are not met, a person either will die or gradually lose health moving toward death or else in some way or another atrophy: By contrast with needs, mere wants "mere" is often used are things that are optional or trivial or inessential.
It is hard to draw the line precisely between wants and needs.
There might be a biological minimum rooted in human nature, but there is a second minimum that varies to a significant extent with culture. In some cultures, it is almost impossible to receive respect if one does not wear a shirt or one cannot read.
In other cultures especially at other, earlier times one could get by without a shirt at least in warm weather and inability to read was not noticed since nobody could.
Even if we grant that some of the things required to meet our needs such as social needs are culturally shaped and cannot be understood in strict biological terms, we can still distinguish between needs and mere wants.Free Essays on Case 3 Nokia Business Interests Vs German Pressures p 82 for students.
Use our papers to help you with yours 1 - Germany's banking sector is facing intensifying competition that could significantly reduce the sector's earnings, requiring lenders to adjust their business models, a top European Central Bank.
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE: Governments Serving Citizens in the wake of pressures of globalization and technological innovation and more widespread access to communications, citizens Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States.
West German accounting, on the other hand, is held up as an example of detailed prescription (by company and tax laws) of formats, measurement rules and disclosure; of accounting which seeks correctness and legality (Nobes p).
This is the second of a two-case series ( and ). Nokia is the largest mobile handset maker in the world with a 40% market share. The mobile handset industry is marked by declining. There are several different kinds of economic interests: business groups (e.g., the Canadian Federation of Independent Business, the Confederation of British Industry, and the Nestlé Corporation, headquartered in Switzerland and with operations throughout the world), Types of interests and interest groups.
pressure groups set up under.