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Additional findings suggest that, rather than increasing the amount of wine purchased, customers selected more expensive merchandise when classical music was played in the background. MacInnis and Park's notion that music is more persuasive when it "fits" the persuasion context is employed to account for these results.
Although Kotler requested that further research be conducted regarding the impact of these in-store factors on behavior, the academic literature on this topic remains rather sparse. The research that has appeared tends to be limited to a rather narrow range of consumer reactions.
Specifically, researchers have focused on overt quantitative indicators i. Moreover, due to the difficulties of conducting atmospheric research in the field, much of the emergent research has relied on verbal i.
Gardner and Siomkos, or visual i. Eroglu and Background of the study, simulations of retail environments. While these laboratory simulation techniques offer the advantages of methodological expediency and experimental control, their ability to realistically capture the desired store atmosphere is suspect.
The literature on atmospherics would, therefore, be enhanced by research examining the impact of atmospheric variables on a wider range of consumer behavior in an actual retail setting.
Consistent with this objective, this study entailed the observation of: Although researchers have examined the effects of music volume Smith and Curnow, and tempo Milliman,on certain aspects of shopping behavior, Bruner suggests that the genre of the background music is likely to produce stronger effects on perceptions and preferences.
Further, since preferences for musical genres are strongly influenced by individual differences see Cupchik, Rickert, and Mendelson,varying the genre of a store's background music is more likely to produce differential effects across customer groups.
Yalch and Spangenberg examined this possibility by comparing the effects of easy-listening versus Top-Forty music on shoppers' estimates of the amount of time they spent shopping. They found that younger customers under 25 reported spending more time shopping when exposed to easy-listening music, whereas older customers 25 and over thought they were in the store longer when exposed to Top-Forty music.
Yalch and Spangenberg speculated that shoppers who encounter non-typical environmental factors i. The Yalch and Spangenberg study raises the possibility that the given musical genres can produce highly specific perceptions by consumers.
In the context of the present study, the objective was to identify the background music that would create a setting appropriate for the purchase and consumption of wine.
MacInnis and Park have formalized this notion by defining the "fit" of music as "consumers' subjective perceptions of the music's relevance or appropriateness" to the persuasion context p. Although MacInnis and Park were concerned with the persuasive impact of music in an advertising setting, their notion of "fit" seems applicable to the impact of atmospheric variables as well.
The task then was to identify the music that best fits the context of examining, purchasing, and tasting wine. In discussing the undertaking of his book on wine, Kramerfor example, notes that: At the time I knew nothing of wine and had no intention of crossing its path.
Wine seemed forbidding, snobbish, and, above all, daunting in its complication. I was suspicious of its trappings and cowed by its air of sophistication p. Empirical evidence supports this intuition. Lesch, Luk, and Leonard found that among women who consumed alcoholic beverages, wine drinkers in comparison to beer and spirits consumers, were generally younger, better educated, and earned higher incomes.
Wine drinkers also had a higher appreciation for art and lower regard for traditional female roles. This suggests that wine purchasing, tasting and consumption are associated with higher socio-economic status, prestige, sophistication, and complexity.The Living Bible® for e-Sword Kenneth N.
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As part of a field experiment in a large U.S. city, the background music (classical versus Top-Forty) in a centrally located wine store was varied over a two month period. The results of an ANOVA indicated that the classical music influenced shoppers to spend more money. Additional findings suggest.
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