They could not help Poland much and only sent a small French attack on Germany from the West. Germany then signed an agreement to work together with the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union forced the Baltic countries to allow it to keep Soviet soldiers in their countries. While British soldiers were sent to the Continent, there were no big battles fought between two sides.
Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. Crisis Could Have Been Prevented Throughout most of the s, the oppressed ethnic Albanian majority in Kosovo waged their struggle almost exclusively nonviolently, using strikes, boycotts, peaceful demonstrations, and alternative institutions.
The Kosovar Albanians even set up a democratically elected parallel government to provide schooling and social services, and to press their cause to the outside world. This was the time for Western powers to have engaged in preventative diplomacy. It was only after a shadowy armed group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army emerged in that the international media, the Clinton administration and other Western governments finally took notice.
Indeed, the KLA murdered Serb officials and ethnic Albanian moderates, destroyed Serbian villages, and attacked other minority communities, while some among its leadership called for ethnic cleansing in the other direction to create a pure Albanian state. Waiting for a full-scale armed insurrection to break out before acting has also given oppressed people around the world a very bad message: Nonviolent methods will fail and, in order to get the West to pay attention to your plight, you need to take up arms.
When Western powers finally began to take decisive action on the long-simmering crisis in the fall ofa ceasefire was arranged where the OSCE sent in unarmed monitors. Indeed, the OSCE monitors could have done a lot more, but they were given little support.
They were largely untrained, they were too few in number and NATO refused to supply them with helicopters, night-vision binoculars or other basic equipment that could have made them more effective.
Ceasefire violations by the Yugoslav army, Serbian militias, and KLA guerrillas increased in the early months ofincluding a number of atrocities against ethnic Albanians by Serbian units, with apparent acquiescence of government forces.
Such a political settlement was quite reasonable, and the Serbs appeared willing to seriously consider such an agreement.
Another problem was that it was presented essentially as a final document, without much room for negotiations. One of the fundamental principles of international conflict resolution is that all interested parties are part of the peace process.
Few national leaders, particularly a nationalist demagogue like Milosevic, would sign an agreement under such terms, which amount to a treaty of surrender: Allowing foreign forces free reign of your territory and issuing such a proposal as an ultimatum.
Smarter and earlier diplomacy could have prevented the war. The Bombing Campaign Many liberals who had opposed U. The bombing campaign, which began March 24,clearly made things worse for the Kosovar Albanians.
Not only were scores of ethnic Albanians accidentally killed by NATO bombing raids, but the Serbs -- unable to respond to NATO air attacks -- turned their wrath against the most vulnerable segments of the population: While the Serbs may have indeed been planning some sort of large-scale forced removal of the population in areas of KLA infiltration, both the scale and savagery of the Serbian repression that resulted was undoubtedly a direct consequence of NATO actions.
By forcing the evacuation of the OSCE monitors, which -- despite their limitations -- were playing something of a deterrent role against the worst Serbian atrocities, NATO gave the Serbs the opportunity to increase their repression. By bombing Yugoslavia, they gave the Serbs nothing to lose.
Hundreds of thousands of ethnic Albanians were forced from their homes into makeshift refugee camps in neighboring Macedonia. As the bombing continued, the numbers of Serbian troops in Kosovo increased and the repression of Kosovar Albanians dramatically escalated.
If protecting the lives of Kosovar Albanians was really the motivation for the U. The war against Yugoslavia was illegal.
Any such use of force is a violation of the UN Charter unless in self-defense against an armed attack or authorized by the United Nations as an act of collective security. Kosovo was internationally recognized as part of Serbia; it was, legally speaking, an internal conflict.
Indeed, he opposed it.
The war was also illegal under U. The Constitution places war-making authority under the responsibility of Congress. Only rarely has Congress formally declared war, but it has passed resolutions supporting the use of force, as with the August Gulf of Tonkin resolution concerning Vietnam, the January approval of the use of force to remove Iraqi occupation troops from Kuwait, and the October authorization for the invasion of Iraq.
Clinton, however, received no such congressional approval. That he got away with such a blatant abuse of executive authority marked a dangerous precedent in war-making authority in violation of the U. A number of human rights groups that condemned Serbian actions in Kosovo also criticized NATO attacks that, in addition to the more immediate civilian casualties, endangered the health and safety of millions of people by disrupting water supplies, sewage treatment, and medical services.
While the Serbian nationalism espoused by Milosevic had fascistic elements, and his government and allied militias certainly engaged in serious war crimes throughout the Balkans that decade, comparisons to Hitler were hyperbolic, certainly in terms of the ability to threaten any nation beyond the borders of the old Yugoslavia.
As a result, some have questioned U. But a more salient question is why the United States has never been held accountable for when it has intervened -- in support of the oppressors.Trump ‘Trade War’ Hides Military Industrial Agenda By F.
William Engdahl 12 November Image Credit: This image or file is a work of a U.S. Air Force Airman or employee, taken or made as part of that person's official duties.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO / ˈ n eɪ t oʊ /; French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Established in This is a research site with the history of the wars, costs, failed strategies, lies, ignorance and arrogance which are bankrupting America and undermining our Republic.
The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started in late February and lasted until 11 June It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (by this time, consisting of the Republics of Montenegro and Serbia), which controlled Kosovo before the war, and the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), with air support from the.
First published: December When, on 24 March , NATO launched its biggest bombing campaign in Europe since the Second World War, it expected a rapid and complete victory over Yugoslavia – a state of little more than 10 million people. By Stephen Lendman Global Research, October 30, In Sunday’s runoff presidential election, hardline Social Liberal Party (PSL) candidate Jair Bolsonaro defeated Workers Party (PT) aspirant Fernando Haddad with 55% of the vote.