However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo.
Marx Overviewas well as Early Marx for more background information. Marx emphasizes repeatedly that although political economy can acknowledge that there are relationships like that of labor and capital, it fails entirely to explain the inner-workings of relationships such as these.
In other words, political economy fails to most things essential to system; it does, however, catalyze extreme greed and competition. Marx goes on to discuss thoroughly one of the most pivotal relationships in political economy: The first distinct genre of alienation described is the commodification of labor and the worker.
Essentially, the more product and therefore profit a single worker is able to produce on account of his labor, the cheaper the commodity the worker becomes. Due to the fact the worker works at a fixed rate, more profit is being gained solely because of his work, but he does not receive any additional compensation.
Following, Marx describes the process of alienation that occurs between the worker and nature. Although the nature of the external world is always necessary, because the labor itself could not produce without material, the relationship between the worker and nature mutates as alienation ensues. Eventually, as opposed to perceiving nature as the fundamental of life that it is, nature is relegated to being perceived as just raw materials used by labor for the sake of production in order to maintain a physical existence.
Due to the fact labor becomes external to the worker, it can be understood as forced or coerced. During the activity of production, man is external to himself and the object he is creating is external to him.
The aforementioned consciousness only results in further estrangement and alienation on the part of the worker. The same consciousness that makes man the most human, makes him a free species being, leads him to eventually misconstrue the difference between the life of the species and the means of individual life.
Since the worker is estranged from his labor, it must be man of another caliber, then, to whom this product of labor belongs. The alienation of the product and the labor instill feelings of hostility; the worker, then, only knows to feel that same way about the owner and coercer of product, labor and alienation: When adhering to a political economy, the worker is commodified and people fall into one of two categories classes: Political economy lacks the ability to explain, and therefore it cannot counter-act particular doctrines, like that of craft liberty of division of landed property.
It is important to understand how concepts and processes within a political economy connect and interact with each other. Political economy does not answer questions, but makes simple deductions based on basic relationships.
It does not speak knowingly of the inner-workings of these relationships. The more efficient increasing value a commodified worker, the cheaper the commodity he comes devaluation. The objectification of labor occurs as labor is used to create product. Alienation occurs when loss of the object and reality are experienced on account of the worker.
The nature of the external world is necessary, for the labor itself could not produce without material. In receiving both an object of labour and means of subsistence, the worker becomes a slave to his object and knows himself as a worker before a physical subject.
As the quality of the worker in regards to him personally and his life go down, the quality of his product goes up. It is through the actual producing of the object, the action, that the worker becomes estranged. The process of working is the process of alienation.
Since the worker, when participating in forced labor, is external to himself, he feels the most human when doing things animals do and the least human when doing the most human activity.
As opposed to estrangement in regards to objects, self-estrangement occurs when the worker relates to the emasculating suffering of the act of production that he engages in.
Labour, productive life, becomes a mere means to supporting physical existence when in fact productive life is the life and essence of the species. Estrangement reverses this relationship.
Man produces universally and animals produce individually. The same consciousness that allowed him to be a species being is tearing him from his production and his organic body.
Man estranged from product of his life-activity means that, consequently, man is estranged to man. Although labor is alien to man because man does not feel as though it belongs to him, it is only man who owns and benefits from it [labor].
Since the worker is estranged from his labor, it must be man of another caliber to who this product of labor belongs. Private property is the product of alienated labor—not just a static facet of political economy.
The Multicultural Readings edited by C. The Marx-Engels Reader, 2d ed.Private property as the material, summarized expression of alienated labor embraces both relations -- the relation of the worker to labor and to the product of his labor and the non-workers, and the relation of the non-worker to the worker and to the product of his labor.
Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.
The alienation from the self is a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class, the condition of which estranges a person from their humanity. Marx in the section on "Estranged Labour" distinguished four aspects of alienated labor: alienation from the product of one's labor, from the labor process or one's activity of .
Society falls into 2 classes: property-owners, and propertyless workers b. Workers become commoditized and are “wretched” in inverse proportion to the “power and magnitude” of their production c. Workers experience estrangement, or alienation, from the world II. Practical Idea. In Hegel’s system, the Practical Idea is the penultimate stage of development of the Idea.
The Absolute Idea is the unity of the Theoretical Idea and the Practical Idea. In his characteristic “upside down” way, for Hegel, theory is the criterion of truth.
In the Practical Idea, Cognition (knowledge) and Volition (will or intention) are synthesised; the subjective Notion.